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Open Access Research

Cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase shunting lowers the anti-cancer effect of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in colorectal cancer cells

Radhakrishnan Ganesh1*, Daniel JB Marks2, Kevin Sales1, Marc C Winslet1 and Alexander M Seifalian1

Author Affiliations

1 Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, UK

2 Centre for Molecular Medicine, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JF, UK

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World Journal of Surgical Oncology 2012, 10:200  doi:10.1186/1477-7819-10-200

Published: 26 September 2012

Abstract

Background

Arachidonic acid metabolite, generated by cyclooxygenase (COX), is implicated in the colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis. Inhibiting COX may therefore have anti-carcinogenic effects. Results from use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibiting only COX have been conflicting. It has been postulated that this might result from the shunting of arachidonic acid metabolism to the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway. Cancer cell viability is promoted by 5-LOX through several mechanisms that are similar to those of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Expression of 5-LOX is upregulated in colorectal adenoma and cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the shunting of arachidonic acid metabolism to the 5-LOX pathway by cyclooxygenase inhibition and to determine if this process antagonizes the anti-cancer effect in colorectal cancer cells.

Methods

Three colorectal cancer cell lines (HCA7, HT-29 & LoVo) expressing 5-LOX and different levels of COX-2 expression were used. The effects of aspirin (a non-selective COX inhibitor) and rofecoxib (COX-2 selective) on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) secretion were quantified by ELISA. Proliferation and viability were studied by quantifying double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) content and metabolic activity. Apoptosis was determined by annexin V and propidium iodide staining using confocal microscopy, and caspase-3/7 activity by fluorescent substrate assay.

Results

COX inhibitors suppressed PGE2 production but enhanced LTB4 secretion in COX-2 expressing cell lines (P‚ÄČ<0.001). The level of COX-2 expression in colorectal cancer cells did not significantly influence the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of COX inhibitors due to the shunting mechanism.

Conclusions

This study provides evidence of shunting between COX and 5-LOX pathways in the presence of unilateral inhibition, and may explain the conflicting anti-carcinogenic effects reported with use of COX inhibitors.

Keywords:
Apoptosis; Colorectal cancer; Cyclooxygenase; Eicosanoids; Lipoxygenase