Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma – a rare, aggressive subtype of epithelioid sarcoma presenting as a recurrent perineal mass in a middle- aged male
Department of Pathology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, India
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 2007, 5:28 doi:10.1186/1477-7819-5-28Published: 6 March 2007
Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) is an uncommon soft tissue sarcoma. Lately, subtypes of ES, including proximal-type ES have been recognized, with relatively few reports on such cases.
A 47-year-old male presented with a perineal soft tissue mass that was excised elsewhere and the biopsy was submitted for a review diagnosis. On histology, a multi nodular tumor was seen comprising sheets of oval to polygonal cells with moderate amount of cytoplasm. Interspersed were larger, rhabdoid cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and prominent nucleoli. Focal necrosis was noted. A wide panel of immunohistochemical (IHC) markers was performed to rule out a range of differential diagnoses, including a poorly differentiated carcinoma, a melanoma and a variety of sarcomas with epithelioid differentiation. On IHC, the tumor cells showed a polyphenotypic expression, including positivity for epithelial markers i.e cytokeratin (CK), CK7, EMA and mesenchymal markers like vimentin and CD 34. Desmin was focally positive. CK20, CEA, S-100, HMB-45, SMA, LCA and CD31 were negative. A diagnosis of a proximal-type ES was formed. Six moths later, despite adjuvant chemo and radiotherapy (CT and RT), the patient continued to have the lesion and was referred again. In addition to the earlier histological features, sections from the persistent tumor mass showed an increased number of larger cells along with multinucleated tumor giant cells.
The value of identifying this uncommon tumor from a list of differential diagnoses is in view of its aggressive behavior, as seen in our case. A wide excision with clear margins is imperative with options of post-operative CT/RT in individual cases during a close follow-up.