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Open Access Highly Accessed Review

A Review of Metallothionein Isoforms and their Role in Pathophysiology

N Thirumoorthy1*, A Shyam Sunder2, KT Manisenthil Kumar3, M Senthil kumar3, GNK Ganesh4 and Malay Chatterjee5

Author Affiliations

1 Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Cherraan's College of Pharmacy, 521 Siruvani Road, Perur, Coimbatore-39, TN, India

2 Dept. of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy and Nursing, University of Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman

3 Dept. of Pharmacology, K.M.C.H. College of Pharmacy, Kovai Estate, Kalapatti Road, Coimbatore -35, TN, India

4 Dept. of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ooty, TN, India

5 Dept. of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkatta. WB, India

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World Journal of Surgical Oncology 2011, 9:54  doi:10.1186/1477-7819-9-54

Published: 20 May 2011

Abstract

The Metallothionein (MT) is a protein which has several interesting biological effects and has been demonstrated increase focus on the role of MT in various biological systems in the past three decades. The studies on the role of MT were limited with few areas like apoptosis and antioxidants in selected organs even fifty years after its discovery. Now acknowledge the exploration of various isoforms of MT such as MT-I, MT-II, MT-III and MT-IV and other isoforms in various biological systems.

Strong evidence exists that MT modulates complex diseases and the immune system in the body but the primary function of MT still remains unknown. This review's main objective is to explore the capability to specifically manipulate MT levels in cells and in animals to provide answers regarding how MT could impact those complex disease scenarios.

The experimental result mentioned in this review related among MT, zinc, cadmium, diabetic, heart disease, bone retardation, neuro toxicity, kidney dysfunction, cancer, and brain suggest novel method for exploration and contribute significantly to the growing scientist to research further in this field.

Keywords:
Metallothionein Isoforms; MT-I; MT-II; MT-III; MT-IV